Knee pain is a common complaint that affects sedentary to active people of all ages. It can be due to wear and tear or injury such as torn ligament and ruptured cartilage. Other medical conditions such as gout, arthritis and infection can also cause knee pain.

Some of the signs and symptoms of knee pain are increase in temperature on the inflammed area, redness with swelling, stiffness, popping sound, weakness and instability. One should immediately consult a doctor if pain is accompanied with fever, unable to walk properly and feel as if knee “gives out”, sharp pulling pain that makes u unable to extend or flex your knee.

Lets start with the types of knee injuries.

1. ACL injury- tearing of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL). It is one of the ligaments that connects the shin bone to the thigh bone. The tear can be partial or fully ruptured. It is common among people who play sports that requires sudden change of direction.

2. Torn meniscus- a meniscus is a cartilage that is tough and rubbery. It acts as a shock absorber between the shin bone and thigh bone. Hard sudden twisting of the knee with a heavy body weight or load is the main cause.

3. Knee bursitis- the inflammation of the bursae (fluid filled sacs). The bursae cushions outside the knee joint allowing tendons and ligaments to glide smoothly over the joint.

4. Patellar tendinitis- irritation or inflammation of the tendons around the knee cap (patella bone). Tendons are thick and fibrous tissues that attach muscles to bones. Runners and cyclists that perform high repetitive knee movements are prone to develop patella tendon inflammation.

Also mechanical problems .

1. Iliotibial Band syndrome (ITB)- ITB is a thick fibrous band that runs from the hip, down to the outer side of the thigh, crosses the knee joint and attaches to the shin bone. If the ITB is too tight or overuse, it causes inflammation to the lateral part (outer part) of the knee joint as it rubs on the outer side of the thigh bone.

2. Dislocated kneecap- knee cap / patella bone slips out of place , usually to the outside of the knee.

3. Hip or foot problem- an injured hip or ankle problem can lead to knee pain too. The change in walking gait and can lead to more stress on the knee joint.

So what to do when u injured your knee? Remember the word RICE. That is rest (avoid any more movements), ice (use ice packs usually 5 min), compression (use bandage to prevent excessive fluid built up) and elevation (prevent swelling).

After an MRI scan , doctors will usually recommend a few treatment. they are usually medications, injections or surgery if its fully torn. Physio therapy will be needed to strengthen the knee again after such treatments. A good resistance training program is beneficial to regain the strength and stability of the knee.

Feel free to consult us on knee rehab and let us free u from worries. Get started soon!

Sean Lee
BSC exercise and sports science